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    英語四級語法指導
    作者:零點啟航教育 來源:互聯網 發布日期:2014-01-11
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      英語四級語法指導:詞序,特殊句型,反意疑問句

    1.詞序

      當多個形容詞共同修飾一個名詞時,在意義上同名詞關系最密切的詞最靠近該名詞,其排列次序為“A + B + C + D + E + F + G + 被修飾的名詞。其中:A. 表示年齡、新舊的形容詞,如old, young等。B. 表示大小、長短、高低、重量的形容詞,如little, big, long, heavy等。 C. 表示形態、形狀的形容詞,如round, square等。D. 表示顏色的形容詞,如red, white, green等。E. 表示國籍、地區、出處的形容詞,如British, southern, Italian等。F. 表示物質、材料的形容詞,如wooden, rocky等。G. 表示用途、類別、目的、與有關等的形容詞,也包括起形容詞作用的名詞和分詞,如medical, writing, geography等。其他形容詞放在上述A類形容詞之前。例如:

      a small round brown wooden table

      a useless, old, big, heavy, red geography book

      a valuable old French writing desk

      a strong young Chinese boy student

     2.一些特殊的句型

      1) there is no point in doing sth.

      該句型意為是無濟于事的/沒有什么用的??梢杂?span>very little not much等來代替no。其中的point是不可數名詞,作目的、用處解。

      There is very little point in arguing with him.

      2) have difficulty (or trouble) in doing sth.

      該句型意為有困難。其中的in可以省略;其中的difficultytrouble是不可數名詞,不能有復數形式。也可以用there is difficulty(or trouble) in doing sth.表達相同的意思。

      There was little difficulty in finding him.

      3) keep (sb. or sth. ) busy doing sth.

      該句型意為使一直忙著做某事。需注意的是雖然busy with doing sth.busy in doing sth.都是正確的,但考題中???span>busy doing sth.句型。但如果busy后面跟的是名詞,則要用busy with sth.。

      We are busy preparing for the examination.

      4) feel like doing sth.

      該句型意為想做某事,且feel like后只能跟動名詞,而不能跟動詞不定式。此外,feel like后還可跟名詞或代詞,表示想要某物。

      I was so angry that I felt like throwing something at him.

      I feel like beer tonight.

    3.反意疑問句

      在具體運用反意疑問句時應注意以下幾點:

      1) 如果陳述句部分是一個含有賓語從句的復雜句,則反意疑問部分的謂語動詞和主語代詞要與主句的謂語動詞和主語相對應。

      He never said she would come, did he?

      You told me I had passed the exam, didn’t you?

      但是如果陳述句部分是 “I (don’t) think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect, fancy, reckon+賓語從句的結構時,反意疑問部分的謂語動詞和主語代詞要與賓語從句的謂語動詞和主語相對應,并且要注意否定的轉移。

      I suppose you are not serious, are you?

      She imagines that people like her, don’t they?

      I don’t believe she knows it, does she? (don’t的否定意義后移而不用doesn’t)

      I didn’t expect she would come, would she? (didn’t的否定意義后移而不用wouldn’t)

      2) 如果陳述句部分是祈使句,則反意疑問部分一般用“will you”。在否定祈使句后還是用“will you”。

      Read the text, will you?

      Don’t be late, will you?

      如果陳述句部分是以Let’s開頭的祈使句,則反意疑問部分一般用“shall we”;如果是以Let us開頭的祈使句,則反意疑問部分一般用“will you”。

      Let’s have a party tonight, shall we?

      Let us go home, will you?

      3) 如果陳述句部分帶有never, nothing, nowhere, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, barely, little, few等否定詞或半否定詞,反意疑問部分的動詞要用肯定式。

      You can hardly believe this, can you?

      He has few good reasons for staying, has he? 

    英語四級語法指導:平行結構,賓語補足語

    1.平行結構

      在英語中,當兩個或兩個以上的同等成分(主語,謂語,賓語,表語,定語,狀語,賓語補足語等)并列時,要求它們的詞性或結構相同,即名詞對名詞,介詞短語對介詞短語,分詞對分詞,句子對句子等等。這就是英語的平行結構準則。一般在使用并列連詞如and, but, or, neither … nor, either … or, not only .. but also, both … and, more(less) … than, as well as,rather… than等時,要注意不要違反平行結構準則。

      He likes watching TV more than reading books.

      The soldier preferred to die rather than surrender.

      We saw Tom walking towards the river, taking off his clothes and plunging into the water.

    Censorship prevents a movie from being shown or a book being sold.

    2. 使役動詞后的賓語補足語

      使役動詞除了要有賓語之外還要加上賓語補足語才能使句子的意義完整。常用的使役動詞有:have, want, make, get, leave, set, let等??梢該斒挂蹌釉~賓語補足語的有名詞,形容詞,介詞短語,動詞不定式和分詞等。

      All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

      A good night’s rest will set you right.

      Note:

      動詞不定式可以擔當使役動詞的賓語補足語,但在make, let, have等使役動詞后,動詞不定式作賓語補足語時不用to。

      He made her give up the opportunity.

      What would you have me do?

      Her pride would not let her do this.

      分詞也可以擔當使役動詞的賓語補足語?,F在分詞表示正在進行的主動意義,而過去分詞表示已經完成的被動意義。

      Her remark left me wondering what he was driving at.

      The joke set them all laughing.

      He managed to get the job done on time.

      I’ve just had some new photos taken.

     

    英語四級語法指導:強調句型,??嫉寡b結構

    1.強調句型

      這里講的強調句主要是以it為引導詞的分裂句。其構成形式為:It is (was) +被強調部分+ that(who, which) + 句子的其他部分。被強調的部分通常為主語、賓語和狀語。

      It is only when one is ill that one realizes the value of health.

      It is what you will do that is essential.

      Note:

      在被強調部分的后面,一般用that引出句子的其他部分。但是如果強調的部分是表示人的名詞,那么也可用who;如果是指物的名詞也可用which。

      It was Jane that/who lent me the money.

      It was this novel that/which they talked about last night.

      如果強調的是原因狀語從句,只能用because引導,不能由since, aswhy引導。

      It was because(不用sinceas) he had never had the opportunity that John hadn’t learned to drive.

      有三類句子成分不可以進行強調,即表語、謂語動詞和由though, although, whereas等引導的從句。

      It is although he is young that he can speak four languages. ()

      Although he is young, he can speak four languages. ()

      It is whereas he prefers pop song that I like classical music. ()

    I like classical music whereas he prefers pop songs. ()

    2.??嫉寡b結構

    1) 當表示否定或基本否定的詞或詞組位于句首作狀語時用倒裝。這類詞或詞組常用的有:never, nowhere, seldom, rarely, little, hardly, scarcely, barely, not until, not only, by no means, in no time, under no circumstances, under no condition, in no way, in no case, at no time, on no account等。

      Never have I heard it before.

      Nowhere can I find my lost watch.

      Under no circumstance should a student cheat in the exam.

      Not only was Churchill a statesman, but also a poet.

      Note: “no sooner … than”“hardly/scarcely … when/before”位于句首時用倒裝。該結構表示…”,在時態上主句一般用過去完成時,whenthan引導的從句用一般過去時。

      Hardly/Scarcely had I got home when/before the bell rang.

      No sooner had the performance begun than the lights went out.

      2) here, there, then, thus, only, hence, little等副詞位于句首,句中主、謂用倒裝。

      Here is the book for you.

      There goes the bell.

      Then came the order to take off.

      Thus arose the division between the developed and developing countries.

      3) “so/such … that”結構中的sosuch 位于句首時用倒裝。

      So cold was it at night that I could hardly fall asleep.

      Such was the force of explosion that all the windows were broken.

      4) 分句以so, neither, nor, no more等副詞位于句首,表明前面句子中所說明的情況也使用于后面的句子時用倒裝。

      Copper is a good conductor. So are many other metals.

      He didn’t see the film last night, neither did she.

     

    英語四級語法指導:賓語從句,狀語從句,定語從句

    1.賓語從句

      1) 及物動詞后的賓語從句

      有些動詞的賓語從句前還可有一個間接賓語。

      I remember that we have learned this word before.

      I don’t understand what you have said.

      She asked the teacher how she could learn English well.

      2) 介詞的賓語從句

      It depends on whether you want to do it or not

      There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is measured.

      Note: 在介詞in后面跟that引導的賓語從句中,in that可看成是一個固定的搭配,表示因為方面。

      The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal means.

    A turtle differs from all other reptiles in that it has its body encased in a protective shell of its own.

    2.狀語從句

       狀語從句中以下四種從句考得較多,這里給予簡單介紹。

      1) 時間狀語從句

      時間狀語從句主要由以下連詞引導:when, whenever, as, while, since, until, till, before, after, as soon as, once, hardly (scarcely) … when, no sooner … than。

      I will discuss the matter with you when we meet tomorrow.

      He didn’t go to sleep until he finished doing his homework.

      You have changed a lot since we met last time.

      時間狀語從句還可由某些可充當連詞的名詞(the moment, the instant, every time,)和副詞(instantly, directly)引導:

      I will tell you the news the instant I know.

      Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.

      Note:

      ① before除了可表示之前外,還可用來強調主句所表達的時間、距離很長或花費的力量相比較大,可譯為“…。(“not … before” 可用來強調主句所表達的時間、距離很短或花費的力量相比較小,可譯為“…”)。

      It was a long time before I got to sleep again.

      They had not been married a month before they quarreled.

      如果位于when引導的分句之前的主句使用過去進行時、過去完成時或“was/were about to, was/were on the point of”等結構時,when表示突然發生某事,可譯為正在突然等。這時,不能夠用aswhile來代替when。

      I was walking on the street when I ran into my old friend John.

      She had just fallen asleep when the telephone rang.

      We were about to leave when it began to rain.

      2) 條件狀語從句

      條件狀語從句主要由以下連詞引導:if, unless, providing/provided (that), suppose/supposing (that), on condition (that), as/so long as, in case等。

      So long as you work hard, you will surely achieve good results in examinations.

      I shall return next Thursday unless something unexpected happens.

      I will go provided that you go with me.

      Please give this letter to John in case he comes.

      3) 讓步狀語從句

      讓步狀語從句主要由以下連詞引導:though, although, even if, even though, whatever, however, whoever, wherever, no matter how/ what/ where/ when等。以下介紹幾種較特殊的讓步狀語從句。

      (1) while引導的讓步狀語從句多放在句首,while相當于although,表示盡管,雖然。

      While I admit I did it, I didn’t intend to.

      While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you.

      (2) 短語“even now/then/so”相當于“though it is/was true”,表示盡管如此,盡管這樣。

      The fire was out, but even so, the smell of smoke was strong.

      I’ve tried my best, but even now/then she is not satisfied.

      (3) as引導的讓步狀語從句要倒裝。

      Child as he was, he could speak four languages.

      Hard as she tried, she failed to get the job.

      4) 比較狀語從句

      比較狀語從句主要由以下連詞引導:(not) as … as, (not) the same as, (not) such … as, not so … as, than, the + 比較級…, the +比較級等。

      We have had a lot more rainfall this year than we had last year.

      She can speak English as fluently as her teacher (can).

    3.定語從句

      1. 先行詞為all, anything, something, nothing, everything, much, little, none等不定代詞時,關系代詞一般只用that,不用which。在大多數情況下that可以省略.

      Please tell me everything (that) you know about the matter.

      That’s all (that) we can do at the moment.

      2. as引出的限制性定語從句

      such … as的結構中as可作關系代詞,引出限制性定語從句。有時和same連用,在從句中可作主語、賓語或表語等。

      Such people as were recommended by him were reliable.

      I’ve never seen such a talented young man as he is.

      I have the same trouble as you (have).

      3. as引出的非限制性定語從句

      as可作關系代詞引出非限制性定語從句,代替整個主句,通常譯為“()一樣,“()一樣等。as引導的從句一般用逗號與主句隔開,可以位于主句的前面、中間或后面.

      I live a long way from work, as you know.

      She did not, as her friend had feared, break down.

      As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

      4. 分隔式定語從句

      定語從句一般緊跟在先行詞之后,但有時會被其他句子成分與先行詞隔開,從而構成分隔式定語從句。

      The days are gone when power politics worked.

      A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you French.

      5.介詞+關系代詞(which/whom)引出的定語從句

      如果關系代詞(which/whom)在定語從句中作介詞的賓語,那么這個介詞可以提到從句前,構成介詞+關系代詞(which/whom)+定語從句。在這種結構中關系代詞不可以用that。

      This is a subject about which we might argue for a long while.

      The four travelers with whom I shared the room were pleasant people.

      6.關系代詞在限制性定語從句中??梢允÷?span>,一般有以下幾種情況:

      1) 關系代詞在從句中作直接賓語時,在大多數情況下可以省略。

      This is something (that) you must always keep in mind.

      The man (whom) you just met is our manager.

      關系代詞作介詞賓語時,介詞位于句尾時關系代詞可以省略;介詞位于關系代詞之前時則關系代詞不能省略。

      This is the room (which) Churchill was born in.

      This is the room in which Churchill was born.(which不可省略)

      2) 關系代詞作主語時一般不能省略,但如果關系代詞在由there … be存在句構成的定語從句中作主語時??墒÷?。

      This is the only book (that) there is on this subject.

      The old professor made full use of the time (that) there was left to him to continue his research.

      3) way后面的定語從句中in whichthat通常省略。

      That’s the way (that/in which) I look at it.

      I don’t like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.

      7.非限制性定語從句

      非限制性定語從句修飾先行詞或整個主句,起補充說明的作用,如果省略掉,原句句意仍保持完整。非限制性定語從句要用逗號與主句隔開,其引導詞不能用that。非限制性定語從句屬于正式語體。經??嫉降姆窍拗菩远ㄕZ從句有以下三種。

      1) which、as引導的非限制性定語從句。which、as代表整個主句。

      He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true.

      China is still a developing country, which is known to all of us.

      2) 介詞+關系代詞引導的非限制性定語從句。

      He sent her a letter, in which he said that he was sorry for what he had done to her.

      He failed to pass the exam, because of which his parents scolded him.

      4) 數詞、代詞或名詞+of +關系代詞引導的非限制性定語從句。

      He had three sons, one of whom was my son’s classmate.

      There are about twenty students in this course, most of whom are freshmen.

      They are two different words, the spellings of which are easily confused.

     

    英語四級語法指導:時態,分詞,不定式

    一.時態

      1. 現在完成時、過去完成時以及將來完成時之間的區別

      1) 現在完成時:

      構成:have / has +過去分詞

      語法意義及要點:

      A. 現在完成時表示一個過去開始的狀態或動作持續到現在并可能繼續持續下去,常同表示一段時間的狀語連用。如so far, up to now, since, for a long time等。

      --He has worked as a teacher for many years.

      --Up till now, nothing has gone wrong.

      B. 現在完成時表示一個過去發生的對現在仍有影響的動作或事件。常與不確定的過去時間狀語連用,如yet, just, before, recently;也同表示頻度時間狀語連用,如often, ever, never, sometimes, several times;還可同包括現在時間在內的時間狀語連用,如now, today, this morning等。但不能同特定的過去時間狀語連用(last year , in 1997)。

      --I have never learned Japanese before.

      --We have been quite busy lately (recently).

      C. 在時間或條件狀語從句中,當表示將來完成時的意義時,要用現在完成時來代替將來完成時。

      --We’ll start at 5 o’clock if it has stopped raining by then.

      --I shall go to see you when I have finished my homework.

      Note: 行為不能持續的瞬間動詞(Instantaneous Verb), arrive, begin, come, go, start, leave, die, join等通常不能用于這一語法意義,即該類動詞在現在完成時中不能與表示一段時間的狀語連用。

      --He has joined the army for five years. ()

      --He has been in the army for five years. ()

      2) 過去完成時:

      構成:had +過去分詞

      語法意義及要點:

      過去完成時表示某一動作或情況發生在過去某一時刻之前并持續到該時刻。

      --David and Jenny had known each other for a long time before their marriage.

      --They had got everything ready before the party began.

      Note: 與現在完成時截然不同的是過去完成時可以與表示具體過去的時間狀語連用。

      --He said that he had seen her the day before yesterday.

      3) 將來完成時:

      構成:shall / will + have +過去分詞

      語法意義及要點:

      將來完成時表示某一動作在將來某一時刻或將來某一動作之前已經完成或發生。

      --He will have graduated from high school before his next birthday.

      --The shop will have closed already before you get there.

      2. 哪些動詞不能用于進行時

      1) 表示狀態的動詞,如be, seem, appear, become, get等。

      He is being a used-car dealer.()

      He is a used-car dealer.()

      She is seeming always about to smile.()

      She seems always about to smile.()

      2) 表示感官感覺的動詞,如see(看見), hear(聽見),feel(感覺出), taste(嘗出),smell(聞到)等。

      The medicine is tasting bitter. ()

      The medicine tastes bitter. ()

      I was seeing a car passing by our house. ()

      I saw a car passing by our house. ()

      3) 表示擁有的動詞,如have, own, possess, belong, contain, hold等。

      He is owning a luxurious car. ()

      He owns a luxurious car. ()

      The book is belonging to her. ()

      The book belongs to her.()

      4) 表示思想狀況、態度的動詞,如believe, think, know, understand, agree, approve, consider, expect, forget, guess, hesitate, hope, imagine, mean, realize, remember, suppose, trust, want, wish等。

      I’m thinking that he is right. ()

      I think that he is right. ()

      I’m understanding your feelings. ()

      I understand your feelings. ()

      5) 表示情感、愿望的動詞,如admire, appreciate, care, enjoy, like, love, hate, detest, regret等。

      He is loving his daughter very much. ()

      He loves his daughter very much. ()

      I’m regretting to say we cannot come. ()

      I regret to say we cannot come. ()

      3. 時態的呼應

      時態的呼應又稱時態一致(Sequence of Tenses),指的是某些從句里的動詞謂語時態必須和主句里的時態保持一致。

      如果主句里的謂語動詞是過去時態(過去時或過去完成時),那么從句的謂語動詞時態也相應地要用過去時。時態的呼應主要發生在間接引語和賓語從句中,但其他從句有時也存在時態一致的問題。

      --He explained that he had learned Chinese for many years.(現在完成時變為過去完成時)

      --He said he had been collecting materials on that subject for a long time.(過去進行時變為過去完成進行時)

      --He told me that they would have completed that project by the end of the year.(將來完成時變為過去將來完成時)

      雖然主句用了過去時等,如果從句表示的是科學真理、客觀事實或某人()的經常性特點時,其時態可以不必遵守時態呼應的規則而仍用一般現在時。

      --Galileo proved that the earth revolves round the sun.

      --The teacher told the students that knowledge is power.

      如果從句中有一個表示絕對過去時間的狀語,就不必把一般過去時變為過去完成時。

    --He said that he joined the Red Army in 1933.

    二.分詞

      1. 現在分詞與過去分詞的區別

      現在分詞與過去分詞的區別主要體現在時間和語態上?,F在分詞表示正在進行的動作并表示主動的意義,而過去分詞表示已經完成的動作并表示被動的意義。比較:

      a changing world(一個變化著的世界);a changed world( 一個已經起變化的世界)

      surprising news(令人驚訝的消息);surprised people(感到驚訝的人們)

      2. 分詞作狀語

      作狀語時,表示時間、原因、方式、結果、條件、讓步和伴隨情況等。另外,作狀語時,它的邏輯主語應與句子的主語一致。

      Hearing the news, he heaved a sigh of relief.

      Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.

      3. 分詞作定語

      分詞常用來修飾名詞或代詞作定語。單個的分詞作定語時,通常放在被修飾詞之前;分詞短語作定語時,通常放在被修飾詞之后。但有些單個的過去分詞作定語時,也可放在被修飾詞之后。

      He’s a spoilt child.

      The man standing over there is our new English teacher.

      Where are we to get the material needed?

      4. 分詞作賓語補足語

      分詞可在感覺動詞和使役動詞后作賓語補足語。常用的感覺動詞主要有:see, hear, notice, watch, find, observe, smell等。常用的使役動詞主要有:get, have, keep, leave, set, make, let等。此外,分詞還可在want, like, wish, order等表示希望、要求、命令等意義的動詞后作賓語補足語。

      She watched her baby sleeping.

      I got my hair cut.

      I don’t want you worrying about me.

      5. 分詞與連詞的連用

      分詞可與各種連詞(如:when, while, once, until, if, unless, though, although, even if, as, as if, as though)連用。連詞+分詞(短語)的結構在句中作狀語,相當于狀語從句。

      She’ll get nervous when speaking in public.

      He went on talking, though continually interrupted.

      6. 分詞的獨立結構

      分詞作狀語時,其邏輯主語與句子的主語應該一致;否則,分詞應有自己的邏輯主語,構成分詞的獨立結構。獨立結構一般位于句首,作伴隨狀語以及在科技文章中表示附加說明時,它常位于句末。分詞的獨立結構由名詞、代詞+分詞構成,可以表示時間、原因、條件、方式或伴隨情況等。

      Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday.

      Her son having been sent to school, she began to do some shopping.

      He returned three days later, his face covered with mud and his clothes torn into pieces.

      There were two parties yesterday evening, each attended by some stuents.

    三.不定式

      1. 某些動詞后要接不定式

      某些及物動詞后只能接不定式作賓語,其中最常用的動詞有agree, afford, arrange, appear, ask, attempt, care, choose, continue, decide, demand, desire, determine, expect, fail, fear, forget, hate, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret, remember, seek, tend, try, volunteer, want, wish等。

      What do you plan to do tomorrow?

      She hated to move from such a nice village.

      In class teachers should try to get feedback from their students

      2. 不定式的被動式

      不定式有被動式,當不定式的邏輯主語是這個不定式所表示的動作的承受者,不定式要用被動式,在句中可作主語,賓語,定語,狀語,復合賓語等。作定語時,通常表示在謂語動作后將要發生的動作。

      The last question to be discussed today is how to do the job more efficiently.

      She preferred to be given more difficult work to do.

      3. 不定式的完成式

      當不定式的動作發生在謂語動詞的動作之前,不定式要用完成式,在句中可作賓語,狀語以及構成復合賓語,復合謂語。

      She seemed to have heard about the news already.

      He was believed to have been a very rich man.

      4. 不定式的完成被動式

      當不定式的邏輯主語是這個不定式所表示的動作的承受者,且不定式的動作發生在謂語動詞的動作之前,不定式要用完成被動式,在句中可作主語,賓語或構成復合賓語,復合謂語。

      The forest fire is reported to have been put out last night.

      It is supposed to have been finished without referring to any reference books.

      5. 帶邏輯主語的不定式短語

      不定式可以有邏輯主語,其構成形式為“for +代詞的賓格(或名詞) +不定式。 帶邏輯主語的不定式短語可在句子中作主語、賓語、表語或狀語等。

      It is not easy for you to catch up with them in a short time.

      I think it better for you to see the doctor.

      What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly.

      I sent him some pictures for him to see what Paris is like.

      6. 帶疑問詞的不定式短語

      不定式前可以加某些疑問代詞,如who、what、which,或疑問副詞,如when、where、how、why等,構成一種特殊的不定式短語,可在句子中作主語、賓語、表語或狀語等。

      How to improve English is often discussed among the students.

      We haven’t decided when to visit the place.

      The most difficult thing in learning English is how to speak the language well.

      You haven’t answered my question where to get these books.

      7. 某些動詞后的不定式作賓語補足語時,不定式不帶to,這些動詞是feel, have, hear, let, make, notice, see, watch等。

      Suddenly I felt the atmosphere in the room become tense.

      I often hear them sing this song.

     

    英語四級語法指導:動名詞,插入語

     一.動名詞

      1. 某些動詞后要接動名詞

      某些及物動詞后能用動名詞而不能用不定式作賓語,其中最常用動詞的有admit, avoid, appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, involve, imagine, can’t help, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, resent, risk, resist, suggest等。

      She suggested spending another day in the mountain area.

      There’s no way to escape doing the work.

      She is considering asking her employer for a rise.

      Note:

      need、want、require、deserve等動詞后的動名詞相當于不定式的被動式

      The clock needs/wants repairing. (=The clock needs/wants to be repaired)

      The disabled deserve respecting. (=The disabled deserve to be respected.)

      like、hate、prefer等動詞后,如果表示一般傾向,則用動名詞作賓語;如果指具體的某次發生在將來的行動,則要用不定式。

      I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book.

      She prefers walking to cycling.

      I prefer to stay at home today.

      remember、forget、regret等動詞后,如果用動名詞作賓語,則表示該賓語的動作發生在動詞謂語的動作之前;如果用不定式作賓語,則表示賓語的動作發生在動詞謂語的動作之后

      I remembered locking the door. (=I remembered that I had locked the door.)

      I remembered to lock the door (=I remembered that I was to lock the door.)

      I regret telling you about it. (=I regret that I told you about it.)

      I regret to tell you he has fallen ill. (=I regret that I am to tell you he has fallen ill.)

      2. 動名詞作介詞的賓語

      動名詞可作介詞的賓語,與介詞一起構成介詞短語,在句中作定語、狀語或表語。

      His dream of becoming a successful writer has come true.

      She left without saying goodbye to us.

      動名詞作介詞的賓語常用在某些詞組后面。這類常用的詞組主要有:be accustomed to, believe in, confess to, dream of, feel like, give up, insist on, be interested in, look forward to, object to, have an (no) objection to, pay attention to, put off, be responsible for, succeed in, be tired of, be (get) used to, worry about,等。

      He is used to living on his own.

      He has made up his mind to give up smoking.

      3. 帶邏輯主語的動名詞

      動名詞可以有邏輯主語,其構成形式為名詞或代詞的所有格+動名詞。帶邏輯主語的動名詞又稱為動名詞的復合結構,在句中用作主語,賓語,表語和介詞的賓語。在非正式語體中,如果動名詞的復合結構在句中作賓語,也可以賓格來充當動名詞的邏輯主語。但考生需注意的是,在各種英語測試中,專家們仍堅持在正式語體中用代詞的所有格來作動名詞的邏輯主語。

      Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.

      I appreciated her devoting herself to the cause of education.

      Your mother will be astonished at your coming home so late.

    What we felt uneasy about was Li Ming’s having too much confidence in himself.

    二.插入語

      插入語通常是說話者對所表達意思的一種補充、強調、解釋或者是說話人的一種態度。它的位置比較靈活,常常會用逗號或者破折號和其他部分隔開,但是在語法上不會影響其他成分。

      插入語六大用法小結

      例1 _____the more expensive the camera, the better its quality.

      A.General speaking B.Speaking general

      C.Generally speaking D.Speaking generally

      小結:許多分詞短語可以用作插入語,這樣的分詞短語有:strictly speaking(嚴格地說),generally considering(一般認為), judging from……(根據……判斷)等。

      例2 Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. ____,neither of them could swim.

      A.In fact B.Luckily C.Unfortunately D.Naturally

      小結:常用作插入語的副詞或副詞短語有:indeed(的確),surely(無疑),however(然而),frankly(坦率地說),obviously(顯然),naturally(天然地),luckily (happily) for sb.(算某人幸運),fortunately(幸好),strangely(奇怪),briefly(簡單地說)等。

      例3 Your performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard,_____, you failed.

      A.in the end B.after all  C.in other words D.at the same time

      小結:常用作插入語的介詞短語有:in conclusion(總之),in a word(簡而言之),in short(簡而言之),in general(一般說來),in a sense(在某種意義上),in my view(在我看來),in his opinion(按照他的看法),in fact(事實上),at first(首先), in addition(此外),of course(當然),to my surprise(使我驚奇的),to her regret(使她遺憾的),for example(例如)等。

      例4 It is so nice to hear from her._____,we last met more than thirty years ago.

      A.What‘s more B.That is to say C.In other words D.Believe it or not

      小結:用簡短的句子結構作插入語,它們常置于句中或句末。這類簡短的句子有:I am sure(我可以肯定地說),I believe(我相信),do you know(你知道嗎),you see(你明白),I’m afraid(恐怕),it is said(據說),I suppose(我想),what’s more(而且),what’s worse(更糟糕的是),that is(也就是說),what is important(重要的是)等。

      例5 _____ with you,I have no money to spare.

      A.To be frank B.What’s more  C.In addition D.However

      小結:常用作插入語的不定式短語有:to be sure(無疑地),to sum up(概括地說),to tell the truth(老實說)等。

      例6 _____, he should have done such a thing.

      A.Speaking general B.Strange to say  C.Luckily D.Of course

      小結:常用作插入語的形容詞或其短語有:true(真的),funny(真可笑),needless to say(不用說),most important of all(最為重要),worse still(更糟糕的),even better(更好)等。

      Bill Gates, the billionaire Microsoft chairman without a single earned university degree, is by his success raising new doubts about the worth of the business world’s favorite academic title: the MBA (Master of Business Administration).

      The problem, most participants in the debate acknowledge, is that the MBA has acquired an aura (光環) of future riches and power far beyond its actual importance and usefulness.

      Opinion surveys in the world’s two largest economies—Japan and the United States—show consumerist definitions of success becoming ever more prevalent.

     

    英語四級語法指導:非謂語動詞,強調句

    一.非謂語動詞

      幾種做句子成分的情況

      1.不定式和動名詞作主語的區別

      (1)動名詞作主語時,通常用以表示一件已知的事或經驗。

      不定式短語通常用來表示一件未完成的事或目的。

      Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(經驗)

      Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰時刻開車令人厭煩。(經驗)

      (2)不定式做主語,一般用it當形式主語,把作主語的不定式短語后置。

      It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

      2.不定式、動名詞和分詞作表語的區別

      (1)不定式作表語

      1)不定式作表語一般表示具體動作,特別是表示將來的動作。

      To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做兩件事等于未做。

      What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建議是立刻開始干。

      2)如果主語是不定式(表示條件),表語也是不定式(表示結果)。

      To see is to believe.百聞不如一見。

      (2)動名詞作表語:動名詞作表語,表示抽象的一般性的行為。

      Our work is serving the people.我們的工作是為人民服務。

      His hobby is collecting stamps.他的愛好是集郵。

      (3)分詞作表語

      分詞做表語有兩種情況,一種是現在分詞做表語,一種是過去分詞做表語,這兩者區別是考試中經??嫉降牡胤?。

      interesting使人感到高興--interested感到高興的

      exciting令人激動的--excited感到激動的

      puzzling令人費解的--puzzled感到費解的

      satisfying令人滿意的---satisfied感到滿意的

      旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲勞。Travelling is interesting but tiring.

      The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要學生學得太多,他們會感到糊涂的。

      The argument is very convincing.他的論點很令人信服。

      They were very excited at the news.聽到這個消息,他們非常激動。

      3.不定式和動名詞作賓語的區別

      begin開始 determine決定 manage設法 agree同意 love 喜歡 fail不能 plan計劃

      (2)有少數動詞只能用動名詞作賓語

      acknowledge承認,admit 承認 dislike不喜歡,討厭 advocate:提倡,主張 complete完成

      appreciate 感激,欣賞 avoid避免 enjoy享有,喜愛 delay延遲 escape逃跑,逃避 deny否認

      consider 考慮 fancy幻想,愛好 mind 介意 miss錯過 finish完成,結束不得 resist抵抗,阻止 imagine設想 postpone延遲,延期 practise 實行,實踐 suggest建議 prevent阻止

      keep保持 quit放棄停止 loathe非常討厭,厭惡 recall回想

      例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

      我很感激兩年前給我出國學習的機會。

      (3)有些動詞后使用動名詞和動詞不定式作賓語的差別

      1)forget to do 忘記要去做某事(此事未做)

      forget doing忘記做過某事(此事已做過或已發生)

      2)stop to do 停止、中斷(某件事),目的是去做另一件事

      stop doing 停止正在或經常做的事

      3)remember to do 記住去做某事(未做)

      remember doing記得做過某事(已做)

      4) regret to do對要做的事遺憾

      regret doing對做過的事遺憾、后悔

      5)try to do努力、企圖做某事

      try doing試驗、試一試某種辦法

      6) mean to do打算,有意要

      mean doing意味著

      7)need, want, deserve +動名詞表被動意義;+不定式被動表示(修、清理等)”意思。

      Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不記得以前見過那個人嗎?

      You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要記著是明天動身。

      I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.我很遺憾必須這樣去做,我實在沒辦法。

      You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。

      Let's try doing the work some other way.讓我們試一試用另外一種辦法來做這工作。

      4.不定式、現在分詞和過去分詞作定語的區別

      The child standing over there is my brother.站在那兒的男孩子是我弟弟。

      The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房間是我們的教室。

      The book writen by professor Smith is very popular in China now. 由史密斯教授寫的那本書在中國非常受歡迎

      I have find my watch lost.

      5.不定式和分詞作狀語的區別

      (1)現在分詞與過去分詞作狀語的區別。

      1)現在分詞作狀語時,現在分詞的動作就是句子主語的動作,它們之間的關系是主動關系。

      Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

      由于不知如何辦是好,他去找父母幫忙。

      2)過去分詞作狀語時,過去分詞表示的動作是句子主語承受的動作,它們之間的關系是被動關系。

      Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

      6.非謂語動詞??嫉钠渌Y構

      (1)疑問詞+不定式結構

      疑問詞who,what,which,when,wherehow后加不定式可構成一種特殊的不定式短語。它在句中可以用作主語、賓語、表語和雙重賓語。

      When to start has not been decided.何時動身尚未決定。(主語)

      I don't know what to do.我不知道該怎么辦。(賓語)

      The difficulty was how to cross the river.困難在于如何過河。(表語)

      I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告訴你哪里可以買到此書。(雙重賓語)

      (2)不帶to的不定式

      1)在表示生理感覺的動詞后的不定式不帶to。

      這類詞有: feel 覺得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear聽到 watch注視 listen to perceive察覺,感知 notice注意 see看見 look at hear

      On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue.

      2)另一類是某些使役動詞,如make, let,have等。

      Let him do it.讓他做吧。

      I would have you know that I am ill.我想讓你知道我病了。

      上述感覺動詞與使役動詞轉換為被動結構時.其后的不定式一般需帶to,

      He was seen to come. The boy was made to go to bed early.

      3)do nothing/anything/everything but(except)結構中。

      例如:Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看電視別的什么也沒有干。

      但是,如果謂語動詞不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式則仍須帶。

      The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.醫生除了讓他戒煙,其它什么都沒有說。

      There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他們沒有別的辦法。

      7.非謂語動詞中的有關句型

      (1)動名詞作主語的句型

      1)It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名詞+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭沒有用。

      It is no good objecting.反對也沒有用。

      It is a great fun playing football.打籃球很有趣。

      2) It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容詞)+ doing sth.

      It is useless speaking.光說沒用。

      It is nice seeing you again.真高興又遇到了你。

    It is good playing chess after supper.晚飯后弈棋挺好。

    二.強調句

      英語中表示強調的8種方式

      1.用形容詞"very","single"等表示強調

      eg.You are the very person I'm looking for.

      你就是我要找的那個人。

      Red Army fought a battle on this very spot.

      紅軍就在此地打過一仗。

      Not a single person has been in the office this afternoon.

      今天下午竟然沒有一個人來過辦公室。

      2.用反身代詞表示強調

      e.g.I myself will see her off at the station.

      我將親自到車站為她送行。

      You can do it well yourself.

      你自己能做好這件事情。

      3.用助詞"do/does/did+動詞原形"表示強調

      e.g.The baby is generally healthy,but every now and then she does catch a cold.

      那孩子的健康狀況尚好,但就是偶爾患感冒。

      Do be quiet.I told you I had a headache.

      務必安靜,我告訴過你,我頭疼。

      4."...and that","...and those",等結構表示強調

      e.g.They fulfilled the task,and that in a few days.

      他們在幾天內完成的就是那項任務。

      I gave her some presents,and those the day before yesterday.

      前天我送給她的就是那些禮物。

      5.用雙重否定結構表示強調

      e.g.There is no reason why this new immigrant should not have the same success.

      完全有理由相信這些新移民應該擁有相同的成功。

      A man can never have too many ties.

      一個男人有再多的領帶也不為過。

      I can't thank you too much.

      我無論怎樣感謝你都不過份。

      A mother can never be patient enough with her child.

      I am not unfaithful to you.我對你無比忠誠。

      6.用短語"in every way","in no way","by all means","by no means","only too","all too","but too","in heaven","in the world","in hell","on earth","under the sun"等表示強調

      e.g.His behaviour was in every way perfect.

      他的舉止確實無可挑剔。

      The news was only too true.

      這消息確實是事實。

      Where in heaven were you then?

      當時你到底在哪里?

      7.用倒裝句表示強調

      8.用強調句型表示強調

      It is that It is who

      e.g.It was the headmaster who opened the door for me.

      正是校長為我開的門。

      It was yesterday that we carried out that experiment.

      就是在昨天我們做了那個實驗。

     

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